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Final report RSE 15000250

Project ACCUMULATION: electricity buildup. Synthesis Report of 2014

Final report


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C. Bossi (RSE SpA)

ACCUMULO 2014 - Energy Storage


This document provides a summary of the main results of the activities carried out in the Annual Implementation Plan 2014 (PAR) of the project “Electricity Storage”. The document consists of an introductory chapter which shows the main national and international research programs, and the main objectives of the three-years project. The next four chapters are related to specific objectives of PAR 2014, with its main results, the research motivations as well as its development phases and a brief summary of the activities carried out in the previous PAR. Chapter 6 describes the collaborations with universities and industry. This is followed by chapters 8 and 9, with a short description of the activities in national and international working groups: EERA, IEC, CENELEC and CEI. Knowledge spread has been continuously practiced through articles publication, presentations and collaborations with AEEGSI, ANIE, AEIT, FIAMM and Telecom Italia. The overall objective of the project is the testing of small size electrical energy storage systems, aimed at developing aging models, diagnostic and management procedures of the batteries, and the development of high temperature electrochemical storage.

The project is divided into two sub lines:
Sub line 1 - electrochemical storage systems; 
Sub line 2 - high-temperature Na-beta Mono-cell.

Regarding sub line 1, the activities concern with (chapters 2.2, 2.3 and 2.4):

•development of new algorithm for the State of Charge (SOC) estimation of lithium-ion batteries, based on the first order electrical model of the cell; the new algorithm is able to estimate the SOC of a lithium-ion cell with a reduced error and has the advantage, compared to other algorithms, to be able to correct any offset in the measured current of the cell and to lead to a correct estimation even after a wrong initialisation; 
•test of the battery-supercapacitor hybrid system to check the benefits obtained from the use of a hybrid storage system, compared to the use of a single battery; 
•the modelling of the battery Vanadium Redox installed in the RSE DG Test Facility, performed through a series of tests with the aim to determine its behaviour and characteristics; 
•to analyse actions in the standardization field.

Regarding sub line 2, the activities are focused to the development of a planar cell configuration for high temperature batteries based on sodium nickel chloride. These batteries can play an important role to support the transmission and distribution of electricity, intervening in voltage dips conditions and / or in voltage and frequency instability and, in general, for the improvement of power quality. For this type of applications, the storage system must be characterized by very fast response times and high power performances.

In this context, the realization of a planar configuration of a beta sodium battery would get batteries not only characterized by high energy density (typical of this type of storage), but also by improved power density. In this PAR we have studied, implemented and verified new seals for metal / ceramic interfaces in a sodium beta battery with planar geometry. The seal is related to the junction between the metal of the body of the cell and the ceramic electrolyte of beta alumina, which acts as a membrane to ion transport between the anodic and cathodic compartments of the cell. See chapter 3 for a summary of the results achieved.

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