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Report RSE 16002263

Operational planning per le reti attive: rassegna dei servizi ancillari e degli indicatori di prestazione



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C. Carlini (RSE SpA), D. Clerici (RSE SpA), M. Rossi (RSE SpA), G. Viganò (RSE SpA), D. Moneta (RSE SpA) , M.T. Vespucci (Università degli Studi di Bergamo), P. Pisciella (Università degli Studi di Bergamo)

RETE-DIS 2015 - Evolution and development of distribution networks


The increase penetration of distributed renewable energy sources (DRES) will require the active participation of distributed resources, through providing ancillary services. This kind of services is common in the transmission network and indicates the availability of generators to vary their power production (active and reactive) and to maintain the balance of the network (primary, secondary and tertiary frequency and voltage). In the transmission network these services are governed by ad hoc markets, such as intra-day sessions or the market. In smart grids renewable sources will be required to participate in these markets and to extend their activities to distribution networks. The sharing schemes of such resources, in particular for the distribution, are not yet defined, due to different regulatory / economic / technological problems. 

One of them is the complexity in managing distribution networks with high penetration of renewable resources. This complexity is faced with the need to easily develop control systems that can be simply used by operators and that are cheap. These requirements are linked to many European and national projects with a lot of different solutions. A thorough search in European projects has allowed to obtain an overview on resources used in control schemes and on ancillary services to the grid. This survey has identified projects that define and use:

• Methods for scalability and replicability investigations;

• Use cases and business models;
• Performance indicators (KPI-Key Performance Indicators).

It is expected that these methods will be used extensively in the future to facilitate the study and application of methods of control for the distribution networks in order to promote the penetration of renewable sources. These analyses represent a fundamental bibliography for next periods of research.

The activity has also planned, during the reference period, a survey on performance indicators that have been proposed by the various European initiatives. In particular, focusing on the research projects in which RSE has played an active role in the definition and calculation of KPIs (IGREENGrid, GRID4EU, and evolvDSO), the indicators have been analysed according to the progress expected in the technological development of networks.

The activity has also planned the definition of some performance indicators based on the concept of network sensitivity. To achieve this, it has relied on the concept of Lagrange multiplier, directly connected with optimization procedures, indicating briefly the economic and technical state of each network node in several aspects: power, voltage and current.

In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the different solutions, also by the use of KPI, it has continued the development of innovative control solution available for the analysis. Particularly the activity was focused on reconfiguration procedures and on the integration of the droop control within a centralized control system. One of the key resources for the management of active networks, investigated by almost all listed European projects, is the storage system. Nowadays they are still not very common, mainly because of the high costs. Therefore, for a more widespread, it is important to encourage the participation of storage systems in the operation of active networks through planning methods and innovative actions. In this period, thanks to the experience developed within the European Grid4EU project, the research has been focused on the development of position and of reconfiguration techniques of them to maximize effectiveness. Other analytical analyses were conducted on the positioning and on the profile of power storage systems exchange through the use of the Euler Lagrange equations. They allow to link directly the location and the use of the storage systems with network parameters. This makes easier the network planning and the interpretation of the results of the optimization algorithms. Furthermore, the identified equations can be extended to different objectives and used in the development of planning algorithms not only refer to the storage systems, but in general to all the distributed resources.

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