Electricity lines transfer the energy produced from the generators to the end users. In the absence of an actual storage possibility, the network operators almost constantly need to guarantee a balance between energy generated in the stations and energy actually requested and used. Imbalances in the network cause disruptions and oscillations in the electricity system that need to be monitored and managed to avoid instability and blackout.
RSE carries out research activities that concern the entire process of planning, development and implementation of the electricity network. The research carried out at RSE starts from the development of optimal planning methods of the network to reach management optimization, both through tools to evaluate operational risk and through diagnostics techniques and methods that evaluate operational conditions of the main system components. Interactions of the electricity net with the neighboring environment have also been the subject of research.
At present the type of power supply that best adapts to the generation, transmission and use of electricity is found in alternating current. For the transmission of enormous quantities of energy over long distances, lines in continuous current are being diffused.
The transmission of large quantities of electrical power across the lines allows a better use of renewable energy sources such as the wind and the sun, sources characterized by high variability in time and by inconstant availability in production. In electricity systems that are composed of numerous lines and connected so as to constitute a true and actual "network", any sudden variation of generation has to be compensated by involving a broader and sounder system that acts as a lung.