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From MAX phase to MXenes: 2D anodic materials for Sodium-ion batteries

pubblicazioni - Presentazione

From MAX phase to MXenes: 2D anodic materials for Sodium-ion batteries

Viene descritta e commenta l’attività di produzione di elettrodi anodici per batterie a ioni sodio (NIB) basate su materiali lamellari 2D noti come MXeni. Il processo di produzione delle polveri di MXeni a partire dalle rispettive MAX phases è stato studiato al fine di comprendere la dipendenza tra parametri sperimentali e prestazioni elettrochimiche finali degli elettrodi.

The development of suitable storage devices based on low-cost technologies and abundant materials is fundamental for a better exploitation of the growing energy production due to the non-programmable renewable sources and in general, for a better managing of the electric grid.In the field of electrochemical storage, the current advantages (high volumetric and gravimetric capacitances) shown by Lithium-ion batteries (LIB) collide with the limited natural abundance of certain elements involved in this technology (e.g.: Li and Co).

The development of Na-Ions batteries (NIB) or hybrid devices (between pseudo-capacitors and batteries) based on Sodium ions can overcame this limitation, and offering a potential solution for a low cost storage systems with high performance and sustainable mass-production. Recently, MXenes, a new class of 2D materials obtained by the chemical exfoliation of lamellar ternary carbides/nitrides known as MAX phases, have been proposed by Japanese researchers as suitable anodic materials for hybrid NIB devices. The lamellar structure of MXenes facilitates the intercalation of many alkaline and earth-alkali metal ions, on an extended range of charge-recharge rates for thousands number of cycles.In our work, we have studied all the main steps to obtain optimal Ti2C and Ti3C2 MXenes powders suitable for high-performance NIB anodes. Spark Plasma sintering (SPS) has been used to produce high pure Ti3AlC2 and Ti2AlC MAX phases.

MAX phases grinding and chemical exfoliation have been also optimized, in order to identify the critical experimental parameters (powder grain size, chemical reactants, electrolyte) to maximize the electrochemical performances (e.g.: specific capacitance).We will described the main results achieved for each of the steps investigated, showing the correlation between experimental parameters and electrochemical analysis. Chemical and morphological analysis have been also carried out to offer a complete characterization of the studied materials during the whole experimental sequence.

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