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According to the scenario proposed by IEA in the World Energy Outlook 2009, fossil fuels remain the main source of primary energy in the world and is estimated they represent 77% of total energy consumption between 2007 and 2030, despite the highest growth rate of renewable energy in same period. The challenge for the reduction of CO 2 emissions in the atmosphere, produced by conventional power plants and other industrial facilities, must be addressed (Europe’s climate change opportunity 20-20 by 2020 and the 450 Scenario of IEA) by a more limited and efficient use of fossil fuels. But this is not enough given the high percentage of use of fossil fuels. A bridging technology that will contribute to mitigation of climate change is the geological storage of carbon dioxide (CCS) in depleted oil/gas fields, in deep saline aquifers and in coal seams. Experimental sites are already active, but for future needs and for the evaluation and management of storage sites and reduction of risk factors were necessary a directive filling the gaps in the legislation on land use, on control of industrial pollution and marine environment. The keys and impacts of the new European directive 2009/31/CE, were examined in this work financed by the Research Fund for the Italian Electrical System under the agreement with the Ministry of Economic Development. The arguments developed concern the criteria for selection of storage sites, permits for exploration and storage, restrictions on contaminants that enter the composition of carbon dioxide stored, monitoring and modelling of potential storage complex. It will also discuss aspects of experimental studies conducted to examine the potential volumes of storage complexes, test monitoring of CO 2 in the atmosphere and offshore and finally the methodologies and results of numerical modelling of risk of losses from the reservoir and the caprock and the risk of leakage from the storage site. Keywords: Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage (CCS), CCS directive, CO 2 monitoring and risk management, Fossil fuel power generation, Long-term CO 2 storage integrity
31 Dicembre 2010
Studi sull’utilizzo pulito dei combustibili fossili e cattura e sequestro della CO2 (P08USI)