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Curbing Electricity Demand. Savings Potential in Italy through Efficient Motorisation

pubblicazioni - Articolo

Curbing Electricity Demand. Savings Potential in Italy through Efficient Motorisation

Efficient Motorization A. Capozza*, W. Grattieri* 9th IAEE European Energy Conference, Firenze 10-12 giungo 2007 *CESI RICERCA Quite a remarkable amount of the Italian yearly electricity demand (about 70%) must be ascribed to the electric motors. Focusing the industrial sector, the electric motors are responsible of about 75% of the consumes. If we consider the currently commercialised typologies of electric motors such as: • Asynchronous single-phase • LV asynchronous three-phases • MV asynchronous three-phases • Fed by direct current • Others predominance occurs of LV asynchronous three-phases squirrel cage motors (about 78% of the total motor consume) with nominal power in the range 0,75 – 90 kW. Energy savings policies in such an energy intensive sector, based on widespread efficiency m ~ 11.500.000 electric motors 109 TWh/year Per size 13,8% 23,1% 34,7% 0,75 – 3,0 kW 3,0 – 7,5 kW Per Sector 8,0% 5,2% 2,9% Agricolture Industry co A agreem nom The e Fig. Thi Electricity • • • •

exploitatio n of high otors, are then bound to be particularly effective and actually they are being considered with 28,4% 7,5 – 22 kW 22 – 90 kW 83,8% Services Residential ntinuously growing attention. voluntary agreement is under way under EC aegis among the main constructors of electric machinery (CEMEP ent, see ref. [1]), relevant to classes eff3, eff2 and eff1 of progressively growing efficiency as a function of the inal power (see Fig. 2) present market in Italy involves mainly eff2 motors (about 720,000 units per year), whereas the use of more fficient eff1 motors is still occasional. 1: national reference set of electric motors for energy savings evaluations s paper describes the studies performed in the frame of the publicly funded research framework for the Italian med at a better understanding of items such as: System (see ref. [2]). These studies were ai iency motors the potential for use of higher effic the savings which can be attained tation of such a potential the barriers which hamper a wider exploi the instruments to remove these barriers

Methods The present potential in Italy for the substitution with eff1 electric motors was firstly considered, together to the evaluation of the relevant cumulated energy savings and of the time horizon to realistically achieve these savings. The main actors of the Demand-Side Electricity System (Energy Managers, constructors of equipment, trade associations, ESCO, policy makers) were confronted systematically, on the base of interviews/questionnaires and of focused workshops. The main goals of this approach was diffusion of information/awareness and investigation of the main barriers against a wider exploitation of eff1 motors. Instruments were finally suggested to remove the singled out barriers of economic and psychological nature; in the licies were recommended of institutional subsidies or tax exemption; in the latter case, informational re suggested, possibly based on results of experimental campaigns finalised to efficiency assessment on ses s al of about 7 TWh/year. Conversely, a more realistic scenario of gradual penetration was h ss at nt has not been assumed yet as a formal and standardised energy label). To this purpose and i is k of perplexities, a campaign of experimental tests on efficiency was performed on samples of eff former case, po processes we eff1 motors existing on the present market. Results On the above bases, evaluations were performed on a national reference set of LV asynchronous three-pha squirrel cage motors (see Fig. 1). In the extreme case of immediate and complete substitution of the whole of existing motors with eff1 ones, these evaluations showed a cumulated (and theoretical) electric energy saving potenti considered, which corresponded to substituting every out-of-order motor with an eff1 one and to adopting new motors only in eff1 class; this would entail a total market of eff1 motors of about 1,000,000 pieces/ year. On this latter assumption, incremental energy savings of about 0.4 TWh/year could be attained, which would allow to match the theoretical cumulated savings of 7 TWh/year within about 17 years. Some of the pointed out barriers to a wider diffusion of eff1 motors are of practical kind, in the sense that the assortment of these equipment (in terms of adopted materials and overall dimensions) is still too limited to fulfil the very variegated range of requirements of the customers. Other evidenced barriers belong to a psychological side. Some end-users showed a scarce confidence on how actual ough this cla n answer to th 1 motors, with efficiency of a motor fulfil the requirements of the class of efficiency declared by the constructor (t Fig Finally, other pract only if m an act consultation and inte

prese ind

o n with CEMEP ents ic ning for 2007 considered a suitable fund to support the acquisition of high efficiency motors. The tion of this principle was also defined on the base of the above results, in the considered frame of rs fostered by the activities described in this paper. the aim of statistically checking the conformity t the CEMEP agreement of the motors marketed in Italy. The result of the campaign, though performed o quite a limited number of samples, showed substantial compliance requirem (see Fig. 2). . 2: some preliminary results of the experimental campaign on the electric motors barriers are of economic kind. Sometimes the end-user does not react positively even once the ical and psychological barriers are removed; then, definite take-off of energy savings policies very often occurs easures based on economic encouragement are also included. The present Italian legislation for econom = measured efficiency on marketed eff1 motors d financial plan ual implementa raction among the involved stakeholde

Conclusions The conclusions of the paper are summarised is it follows: 1. the sector of electric motors is highly energy intensive: the, very remarkable energy savings can be expected by pro oting extensively the use of high efficiency equipment is to recover end-users’ confidence on high efficiency motors; awareness should be diffused: by means of upd m 2. need of s of developing suitable forms of economic subsides and incentives when end-user do not react once practical and psychological barriers are removed [1] [2] usione" (Studies on energy savings due to efficient technologies: survey on theoretical potential, barriers against its deployment, actions aimed at better dissemination), CESI RICERCA Report 06005955, 31/12/06 • ated information on payback times connected to the operation of substitution, where the investment on highly efficient motors is paid back in few years through the remarkable savings on the electricity bill • by means of reliable information of actual efficiency of commercial motors, aimed at reassuring sectors undecided or doubtful end-users 3. suggestion i timely even References Voluntary Agreement of CEMEP, 1999. A. Capozza et alii: "Studio sul risparmio energetico possibile con tecnologie efficienti: indagine sul potenziale teorico, barriere che ostano al suo spiegamento, azioni per una migliore diff

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